textured yarn

Traditionally, textured yarn is considered a kind of fancy yarn, and now textured yarn is defined as a group of special yarns or filaments, (which have undergone special treatments during the production process, such as heating, cooling).

Textured Yarn

Table of Contents

    1. The Concept Of Textured Yarn

    Traditionally, textured yarn is considered a kind of fancy yarn, and now textured yarn is defined as a group of special yarns or filaments, (which have undergone special treatments during the production process, such as heating, cooling). The textured yarn is mainly composed of filament fibers, and the yarn structure can be simple filament or complex structure.

    Several characteristics of textured yarn:

    ① Raw materials: thermoplastic synthetic fibers and filaments for general use (except for network yarns)

    ② Processing: After deformation processing in other ways such as mechanical and physical, the parallel arrangement of the original filaments has been changed

    ③ Appearance of the yarn: There are two-dimensional or three-dimensional crimping deformations (crimps, loops, silos, corrugations) distributed along the axial direction

    ④ Yarn performance: the filament is reinforced in a certain way, and the textured yarn has a certain strength and elongation performance 

    Second, The Development Of Textured Yarn

    The appearance of textured yarn was originally only to increase the expansion and loose properties of the fiber by changing the geometric properties of the fiber material, like cotton and fine wool, to make the product plump and warm. Through various deformation processing, filament has overcome the shortcomings of filament yarn, and has many characteristics of spun yarn (such as expansion and warmth), while reducing investment and cost, improving product quality and production efficiency, expanding the use of filament yarn.

    As early as the 1930s, the American Smith & Sons Carpet Company used the stuffing box technique to improve the curling properties of South American wool.

    In 1932, Heberlein in Switzerland invented the texturing method of rayon yarn and obtained the first patent for crimping and texturing of rayon (applied in 1932 and named Nigrila, commercial name)

    In the 1940s, with the industrial production and application of thermoplastic synthetic fibers (nylon, polyester), modified yarns developed rapidly. Because synthetic fibers are thermoplastic, their filaments change the structure of macromolecules in the fibers through "deformation-heat-setting" under mechanical action, and control the heat-setting process to obtain textured yarns with ideal crimping effect.

    In the 1950s Swiss, American and Japanese companies twisted - heat-set - untwisted polyamide filaments in a batch process (classical method) This method can be used on any twisting equipment with a "steamer" conduct. Disadvantages: many processes, high cost, low productivity.

    Subsequently, the two-step deformation method proposed by the British Celanise Company, and the one-step deformation processing method - the false twist deformation processing method. (False Twist Texturing), industrial production in the 1950s, and gradually replaced the classical three-step deformation processing method. Its characteristics: short process, low cost, one-step completion.

    In 1951, Toray Company of Japan produced polyamide textured yarn by false twist texturing process, and the trade name was Woolie Nylon.

    In 1958, British Nylon Spinner Company developed a friction type false twister, and developed the first friction type false twist texturing machine with British Hobourn Company.

    In 1959, the British Imperial Chemical Company produced a false twist textured yarn (polyacyl) with high bulkiness and low stretchability by using secondary heat setting (box). 

    DuPont Company of the United States pioneered the air modification processing method, mainly processing medium and coarse yarns, making decorative fabrics and carpets.

    Air Textured Yarn (ATY)

    Air-textured yarn, also known as Taslan, uses the turbulent effect of air jets to form an irregular tangled coil shape for overfeeding filaments, which is similar in appearance to the characteristics of spun yarn and imparts bulkiness. Deformation technology. Disadvantages of ATY: The nozzle structure is complex, the deformation processing speed is slow, the compressed air consumption is large, and the cost is high.

    Edge-Crimping - Aguilon

    The British invented the edge-crimping method in 1943. The key to the technology is the small radius of curvature of the blade.

    Principle: The heated filament changes the orientation of the macromolecules due to the scraping of the blade and the compression (pulling) of the inner and outer macromolecules.

    1.67Tex multifilament textured yarn can be used to produce women's elastic stockings.

    Edge-Crimping of textured yarn
    Edge-Crimping Method of textured yarn

    Gear Forming Deformation Method (BXF)

    Technical key: a pair of tightly meshed heating shaping gears, which are heated and shaped at the same time to generate permanent corrugations. Different specifications of gears can be used to generate Textured yarns with different waveforms and crimp frequencies, which can be used for knitted outerwear and sweatshirts

    Gear Forming Deformation Method (BXF) of textured yarn
    Gear Forming Deformation Method (BXF) of textured yarn

    The fundamental change of textured yarn was the emergence of "high-speed spinning-stretch-twist texturing (POY-DTY)" in the 1970s. An important part of the so-called "yarn revolution" (yarn Revolution). The POY-DTY process can shorten the production process, increase the output, reduce the production cost and improve the product quality, and it was quickly promoted all over the world at that time.

    Air textured yarns also developed vigorously in the 1970s with the improvement of nozzles, and various novel textured yarns such as silk winding yarns, pile yarns, core-spun yarns, multi-layer yarns, slub yarns, etc. were developed.

    The market for raw materials for new tufted carpets has also undergone great changes. Wool is expensive and the demand for textured yarns for synthetic carpets is increasing.

    Du pont in the United States, British merchants, France and Germany have successively used the "spinning, stretching, texturing" one-step method to process bulked filament yarn (BCF-Bulked continuous filament/yarn) for carpet yarn.

    3. Types Of Textured Yarns

    1. Generally, According To The Deformation Processing Method, It Is Divided Into:

    (1) False twist textured yarn:

    • ①High elasticity (DTY)
    • ②Low elasticity (FDY)

    (2) Air textured yarn ATY

    (3) Bulk textured yarn BCF

    (4) Network wire

    (5) Acrylic bulked yarn

    (6) Composite (new) textured yarn (multiple textured yarn)

    • ①Multiple variation and multiple repetitions
    • ②Interrupted network wire
    • ③ Bamboo silk
    • ④Mixed false twisted yarn
    • ⑤Unevenly drawn yarn
    • ⑥Mixed fiber drawn yarn

    2. According To Raw Materials:

    (1) Polyester textured yarn

    Video: Polyester Yarn Manufacturing Process
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    (2) Nylon textured yarn

    Video: Nylon Yarn Factory

    100% Nylon 6 Hank Dyed High Twisted DTY Yarn

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    Nylon Yarn
    100% Nylon 6 Dope Dyed High Twisted DTY Yarn


    • Anti-bacteria
    • High tenacity
    • Moisture-absorbent
    • High stretch


    • Elastic tape
    • Socks
    • Glove
    • Shoes upper
    • Webbing

    (3) Polypropylene textured yarn

    (4) Acrylic expanded yarn

    3. By Structure

    (1) Simple textured wire

    (2) Complex textured yarn: such as three-different textured yarn (different denier, different cross-section, different shrinkage) sheath-core yarn, etc. 

    Fourth, The Purpose Of Fiber Crimping Deformation Processing

    1. Basic Purpose - Simulation

    The vast majority of natural fibers have a crimped or twisted morphology. Such as wool, cotton, etc., this fiber has good cohesion, which is conducive to spinning; good bulkiness, it has a great effect on the wearing performance of the product (such as bulkiness, fullness, warmth, softness, stability, air permeability). big impact.

    Short Fiber Simulation

    Natural fibers or chemical staple fibers can also be spun or blended by different spinning systems to obtain plump and bulky staple fiber yarns. These properties are mainly due to the complex arrangement of short fibers, hairiness, bending, etc., so that there are voids in the yarn, or a plush and soft feeling.

    Advantages And Disadvantages Of Synthetic Fabrics

    Filament, such as polyester, nylon, and acrylic in synthetic fibers, has the advantages of high strength, high elasticity, resistance to repeated deformation, abrasion resistance, durability, easy washing and quick drying. However, due to its smooth surface, round cross-section and close to each other in the yarn, straight and parallel, the woven fabric feels slippery, cold, wet and sticky, airtight, sultry, and lacks the warmth of natural fibers. , comfort and dimensional stability.


    In order to learn from each other's strengths, by changing the shape of the filaments (fibers) in the length direction to improve their bulkiness, this is called crimping deformation processing, referred to as deformation processing. 

    2. Definition Of Deformation Processing:

    It refers to the crimping deformation of the filament (fiber) in two or three degrees (dimensional) space by mechanical or other actions, and fixed by appropriate methods (such as heat setting or air flow), thereby changing the original filaments (filaments) arranged parallel to each other.


    • The geometry and the original arrangement are changed
    • Improved wearability of fabrics
    • Expanded the application range of filament.
    • Simplify the process and improve the efficiency: no need to cut or break into staple fibers, and then spin and weave fabrics  

    Textured Yarn Also Has The Following Characteristics

    ① Improve the warmth and coverage of the fabric.

    ② High dimensional stability, good shape retention and good appearance.

    ③ Improve anti-pilling, anti-wrinkle, anti-snatching properties; improve to a certain extent

    ④ Make high elongation, good recovery knitted underwear, socks, suitable for body shape.

    ⑤ Strong sense of hair type, soft luster and good bulkiness.

    ⑥ There are many pores in the yarn, which improves air permeability, stores moisture, and improves comfort through certain procedures.

    ⑦ Synthetic fiber textured yarn has the characteristics of high strength, toughness, wear resistance, durability, easy washing and quick drying. 

    5. Development Of Textured Yarn Products

    1. Use:

    Application Generally speaking, the early textured yarn is limited by the processing method and its performance, and the application range is not wide, such as: nylon elastic yarn is used for socks or underwear, polyester elastic yarn is mostly used for outerwear, sportswear, polypropylene puffed textured yarn is used for Household fabrics or carpets, acrylic bulked yarns are used for knitted underwear, outerwear, wool, blankets, etc.

    At present, there are many kinds of textured yarns with excellent performance, and the main purpose is to imitate natural fiber fabrics.

    Such as: wool-like textured yarn: "Taslan" air textured yarn launched by DuPont in the United States, "Milpa" launched by Japan's Toray, and "Jingang Lun" launched in China. Hair is like hair, imitation hair is better than hair, and the fake is the real” effect.

    2. Development Of Textured Yarn Products

    The textured yarn products for clothing are mainly plain fabrics. The weave is mainly plain weave, there are also plain weave and twill weave, satin and jacquard weave patterns are rare. When developing products, we mainly focus on the design of raw material configuration, warp and weft thickness and density.

    The development of new textured yarn products is mainly reflected in the following three aspects:

    ① Innovation: The product must have a new appearance, new appearance, new feel, new raw material, new structure, such as bamboo effect, color bar and color grid effect, this is an innovative product.

    ② Differentiation: This is the biggest advantage of textured yarn, making full use of its special characteristics of different colors, different shrinkage and different appearances.

    ③ Simulation: from the luster, feel, yarn hairiness and structure (twist, gap) to make imitation wool, linen, silk fabrics.

    As long as we repeatedly study the above three aspects, carefully analyze the psychological needs of consumer groups, and combine the development trend of fabrics, we will be able to design new marketable textured yarn products.

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